A couple weeks back, I went to Brickhack 2, CodeRIT’s second annual MLH hackathon. I had a great time with my team and with the project we tackled, so I wanted to write a little about it for memory’s sake and to show off what we accomplished during the event.

The Team

In the few weeks leading up to the event, I’d known that I was going to attend, but I hadn’t figured out an idea or found a team. Luckily, CodeRIT hosted a mixer for team scouting and brainstorming, which is where I met Andrew Wetmore and Kevin Kong, who became my teammates. Funny enough, I’d actually met Andrew earlier that same day on a totally unrelated note, when he came to Computer Science House to apply as an intro member. Anyway, we found that we had a nice mix of skills - Andrew was a Game Design and Development major who had experience with using Unreal Engine and general gamemaking practices, and Kevin and I both had a solid working knowledge of C++.

The Project

After brainstorming for awhile, we got talking about how cool it would be to make a game with virtual reality enabled. Andrew mentioned that adding VR to a game built with Unreal was nearly trivial, so we started focusing on ideas geared towards that end. I happened to remember a project built by my friend Roxy Meskell in which she built a maze generation algorithm that operated in higher dimensions - up to 16. I brought the idea up, and we got excited by the possibility of implementing a multi-dimensional maze using VR, so we decided to pursue it. Over the next week leading up to the hackathon, we met a few times to refine our idea and identify exactly what we wanted our end goal to be. We recognized the difficulty of the project, so although we had wild ideas about how the game could work in an ideal scenario, we cut down our objectives to something we thought was more reasonable - to simply generate the mazes and be able to navigate through the VR world.

Implementation Details

While we brainstormed, we identified several of the different aspects that would be needed to achieve a working game. We decided that Andrew could work on the game environment - setting up the Unreal Engine project, creating the virtual world, and implementing player interaction. Kevin and I took the maze generation challenge, which we decided to develop in C++. Choosing C++ was a good choice because we’d both had prior experience with it and it was capable of being imported into an Unreal project as program logic. For the maze generation algorithm, we decided to take the same approach that Roxy had, which was to adapt Eller’s Algorithm for higher dimensions. I’d reached out to Roxy by that point, and she told me about how her implementation supported multiple dimensions. The answer lies in the nature of Eller’s Algorithm itself. In the algorithm, a maze is generated with a fixed “row” width (i.e. fixed number of columns) and then grows downward. Cells in the maze are categorized into “sets”, which determine which cells are connected and which ones are divided by walls. A more complete explanation of the traditional 2D approach is available at the link above, but this is where higher order dimensions come into play.

So far, we’ve identified two important characteristics, but let’s re-imagine them in a more generalized form. The first characteristic was having a fixed width and growing by one downward. We can see two dimensions in play at this point, the width (let’s call it x), and the direction of expansion (let’s call it y). We can see that at each iteration of expansion (i.e. every time we “add a row”), we’re really just expanding the maze by one x set in the y direction. The next characteristic is that the presence of walls between two cells is determined only by the “sets” of those two cells. If they share a set (i.e. they have the same number), they are connected, otherwise they are divided by a wall. However, the idea of a set, a collection of objects, doesn’t care about whether a cell belongs to a line of cells, or to a plane of cells, or to a cube of cells.

Now we can put this all together. The original Eller’s algorithm repeatedly takes two rows of the same width and merges across them, randomly connecting cells that share an index within their individual rows. The “rows” can just be replaced with a generic data structure that is a collection of cells. This data structure can be filled with one row of cells, or it can be filled with planes of cells, or cells arranged in higher-dimension shapes such as cubes and tessaracts. When generating the maze, the algorithm takes two of these data structures of the same size and randomly connects cells in corresponding indeces of each “shape”. So if we were trying to merge two 2x2 planes (which results in a 2x2x2 cube), the algorithm would operate between the following indeces:

(x, y, plane 0)                         (x, y, plane 1)
(0, 0, 0) <-- randomly connect with --> (0, 0, 1)
(1, 0, 0) <-- randomly connect with --> (1, 0, 1)
(0, 1, 0) <-- randomly connect with --> (0, 1, 1)
(1, 1, 0) <-- randomly connect with --> (1, 1, 1)

Since we’ve now generalized this pattern away from absolute shapes such as lines, planes, and cubes, we can simply apply it with new numbers for the number of dimensions we want our maze to be and the size of each dimension.

At the Hackathon

A lot of this problem solving was done in a meeting in advance of the hackathon, even though we didn’t write any code until the event started. Even for all of our planning, we still had to spend the first two hours identifying exactly how the two halves of the project - the game engine and the backend - would interface with one another. We drew up a clear set of method signatures and defined exactly what data Andrew needed to be able to query and what parameters he would provide in order to identify the data he needed. After that point, I can’t speak much for how Andrew went about implementing the game side of the project, just that whatever he did seemed like pure wizardry.

On the other side of things, Kevin and I must have spent at least 8 to 12 hours of the hackathon just setting up the data structure for the maze. We had to create something that was flexible enough to store cell data in a world that could vary in number and size of dimensions. Since we were using C++, we were thankfully able to separate the organization of the cells from the data that the cells themselves contained, meaning that if we needed to change some member data of a cell we didn’t have to rewrite our entire array setup. Originally, we had the cells keep a very sparse amount of data about themselves. Namely, they each had an array of boolean flags that indicated whether there was a wall on either side of it in each dimension. Since you can move in two directions in any dimensions, the indeces of the wall flags looked a bit like this:

[0-, 0+, 1-, 1+, 2-, 2+, ...]

Where 0- would indicate a wall behind us on dimension 0, and 0+ would be a wall in front of us in dimension 0, and so on for the other dimenisions.

I think that by the time we reached the maze generation portion of the project, it must have been past midnight (having started at 1 pm). We spent a lot of time analyzing Roxy’s code, and one of the things that we noticed was that since her implentation used C#, there was a lot of overhead that we would have to do that involved manipulation of sets and the like, which were provided by native functions in the C# implementation. Some of these capabilities included the ability to “merge” two sets (we were using C++ vectors), renumber each set, etc. We had to think of the generalized operations we would need to perform on the sets in order to do the modified Eller’s algorithm successfully.

Project Conclusion

Though we went into the hackathon with a solid plan and started off at full steam, I think that the difficulty of the project was too much for the three of us in 24 hours. We made a lot of progress on both the data backend and game frontend, which was a blast and took a lot of intense problem solving, but in the end I don’t think we had the endurance to maintain the level of focus we would have needed to complete the project in time. If you want to check out the progress we did make, you can find it on GitHub here. If you find this project overwhelmingly interesting and would like to talk about it, feel free to email me about it or find me some other way - I’d be happy to just chat about it or perhaps to hand it off if somebody feels really ambitious about it.